WATER STRESSED AND WATER SCARCE COUNTRIES: 2025 projections

Environmental and Water resources Management
Rafik Hirji - Hans Olav Ibrekk
Strategy Series Number 2 - October 2001
The World Bank - Environment Department

 

PRECIPITATION DATA

Average annual precipitation for selected world cities

City, Country

Inches

Centimeters

Cairo, Egypt

1.0

2.5

Ahmadi, Kuwait

3.9

9.9

Riyadh, S. Arabia

4.4

11.2

Damascus, Syria

7.4

18.8

McMurdo, Antarctica

8.0

20.3

Tehran, Iran

9.5 24.1

Amman, Jordan

10.7

27.2

Madrid, Spain

17.3

43.9

Prague, Czech Republic

18.9 48.0

St. Petersburg, Russia

21.2

53.8

London, Great Britain

23.2

58.9

Paris, France

23.9

60.7

Beijing, China

25.0

63.5

Nairobi, Kenya

29.9

75.9

Rome, Italy

31.2

79.2

Reykjavik, Iceland

32.2

81.8

Johannesburg, S. Africa

33.3 84.6

Perth, Australia

34.1 86.6
Montreal, Quebec 40.8 103.6
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 43.4 110.2
Brazzaville, Congo 54.0 137.2
Tokyo, Japan 60.0 152.4

Yaounde, Cameroon

62.9 159.8

Jakarta, Indonesia

71.7 182.1

 

WATER RESOURCES DATA

Total Desalination Plants capacity in some SMED & ME countries

Country

Capacity
m3 / day

Percentage of total
%

Algeria

204312

1.84

Bahrain

315197

2.84

Egypt

87044

0.78

Iraq

333093

3.00

Jordan

8445

0.08

Kuwait

1523210

13.71

Libya

677750

6.10

Morocco

15325

0.14

Oman

162096

1.46

Qatar

582074

5.24

S. Arabia

5020320

45.20

Sudan

1776

0.02

Syria

7703

0.07

Tunisia

50914

0.46

U.A.E.

2081090

18.74

Yemen

37188

0.33

Total

11107537

100.00

 

Water availability SMED & ME countries

Country

Total annual renewable water resources

Annual river flows

Net annual renewable resources

Renewable resources per capita

from other countries

to other countries

1960

1990

2025

 

B m3

B m3

B m3

B m3

m3 / yr

m3 / yr

m3 / yr

Algeria

18.90

0.20

0.70

18.40

1704

737

354

Bahrain

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Egypt

1.80

56.50

n.s.

58.30

2251

1112

645

Iran

117.50

n.s.

n.s.

117.50

5788

2152

1032

Iraq

34.50

66.00

n.a.

100.00

14706

5285

2000

Israel

1.70

0.45

n.a.

2.15

1024

467

311

Jordan

0.70

0.40

n.s.

0.90

529

224

91

Lebanon

4.80

n.a.

0.86

3.80

2000

1407

809

Libya

0.70

n.a.

n.a.

0.70

538

154

55

Morocco

30.00

n.a.

0.30

29.70

2560

1185

651

Oman

2.00

n.a.

n.s.

2.00

4000

1333

421

Qatar

n.a.

n.a.

n.s.

0.00

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

S. Arabia

2.20

n.a.

n.s.

2.20

537

156

49

Syria

7.60

27.90

30.00

5.50

1196

439

161

Tunisia

3.75

0.60

n.a.

4.35

1036

532

319

U.A.E.

0.30

n.a.

n.a.

0.30

3000

189

113

Yemen

2.50

n.a.

n.s.

2.50

481

214

72

MENA

228.45

152.05

31.86

348.30

3430

1436

667

Africa

4184.00

n.a.

n.a.

4.18

14884

6516

2620

Asia

10485.00

n.s.

n.s.

10485.00

6290

3368

2134

World

40673.00

n.a.

n.a.

40673.00

134714

7685

4783

 

Use of non-conventional sources of water in selected countries

Country

Total water withdrawal

Desalinated water

Reused treated wastewater

Use of desalination water and treated water

 

Year

million m3 per year

Year

million m3 per year

Year

million m3 per year

million m3 per year

as % of total withdrawal

Algeria

1990

4500.0

1990

64.0

   

64.00

1.422

Bahrain

1991

239.2

1991

44.1

1991

8.0

52.13

21.793

Cyprus

1993

211.0

   

1995

11.0

11.00

5.213

Egypt

1993

55100.0

1990

25.0

1993

200.0

225.00

0.408

Iran

1993

70034.0

1991

2.9

   

2.90

0.004

Iraq

1990

42800.0

           

Jordan

1993

984.0

1993

2.0

1991

50.3

52.30

5.315

Kuwait

1994

538.0

1993

231.0

1994

52.0

283.00

52.602

Lebanon

1994

1293.0

   

1991

2.0

2.00

0.155

Libya

1994

4600.0

1994

70.0

1990

100.0

170.00

3.696

Malta

1995

55.7

1995

31.4

1993

1.6

32.96

59.174

Morocco

1991

11045.0

1992

3.4

   

3.40

0.031

Oman

1991

1223.0

1995

34.0

1991

26.0

60.00

4.906

Qatar

1994

284.9

1995

98.6

1994

25.2

123.80

43.454

S. Arabia

1992

17018.0

1995

714.0

1992

217.0

931.00

5.471

Syria

1993

14410.0

   

1993

370.0

370.00

2.568

Tunisia

1990

3075.0

1990

8.3

1993

20.0

28.30

0.920

Turkey

1992

31600.0

1990

0.5

   

0.50

0.002

U.A.E.

1995

2108.0

1995

385.0

1995

108.0

493.00

23.387

 

Water resources availability and uses in SMED & ME countries 

Country

Annual renewable water resources

Total fresh water withdrawal

Domestic use

Industrial use

Agricultural use

Irrigated area
 

km3 per year

km3 per year

% % % 103 ha

Algeria

14.3 4.5 25 15 60 555

Cyprus

0.9 0.21 24 2 74 40

Egypt

86.8 55.1 6 8 86 3265

Libya

0.6 4.6 11 2 87 470

Morocco

30.0 11.04 5 3 92 1258

Sudan

154.0 17.8 4 1 94 1946

Tunisia

4.1 3.08 9 3 89 352

Bahrain

0.1 0.24 39 4 56 3

Gaza St.

0.06 0.12 40   60 12
Iran 137.5 70.03 6 2 92 7264
Iraq 96.4 42.8 3 5 92 3525

Israel

2.1 1.9 16 5 79 193

Jordan

0.9 0.98 22 3 75 73

Kuwait

0.0 0.54 37 2 60 5

Lebanon

4.8 1.29 28 4 68 88
Oman 1.0 1.22 5 2 94 62

Qatar

0.1 0.28 23 3 74 13

S. Arabia

2.4 17.02 9 1 90 1473

Syria

46.1 14.41 4 2 94 1082

Turkey

200.7 31.6 16 11 72 4186

U.A.E.

0.1 2.11 24 9 67 67
W. Bank 0.4 0.10 6.5   93.5 10.4

Yemen

4.1 2.93 7 1 92 481

 

Data and characteristics of river basins

According to the United Nations 215 international river basins containing 40% of the world's population, are shared by two or more countries (Register of International Rivers, 1988). These basins encompass 47% of the total land area of the earth.

Number and area of international river basins by continent

Continent Number % of area
Africa 57 60
North and Central America 34 40
South America 36 60
Asia 40 65
Europe 48 50
Total 215 47

The 28 largest international river basins vary in size from 5 870 000 km2 of the Amazon to 529 000 km2 for the Okavango. The Mississippi basin with an area of 3.2 million km2 covers 41% of the contiguous land area of the USA. Thirteen basins are shared by five or more countries. Leading are the Danube with 12 countries and the Nile and Niger each with ten. Many countries have a large fraction of their total area in international river basins. Fifteen countries with a per capita water availability of under 5000 m3 per year, have more than 75% of their total area in international river basins.

 

Domestic water use in the Middle East in 1995 and estimates of "minimum" and "maximum" water demand for the year 2025 

Country

Domestic use
1990

Population
1995

Domestic water
1995

Population
2025

Minimum water needs
2025

Maximum water needs
2025
 

 million m3

million

m3 / cap / yr

million

 million m3 / yr

 million m3 / yr
Afghanistan 261.0 18.4 14.2 41.4 4140 10578

Algeria

1120.0 28.4 39.4 47.2 4720 12060

Bahrain

94.3 0.6 157.2 1.1 110 281

Egypt

3100.0 61.9 50.1 97.9 9790 25013
Iran 4395.0 61.3 71.7 106.1 10610 27109
Iraq 1280.0 20.6 62.1 52.6 5260 13439

Israel

597.0 5.5 108.5 8.0 800 2044

Jordan

214.0 4.1 52.2 8.3 830 2121

Kuwait

201.0 1.5 134.0 3.6 360 920

Lebanon

368.0 3.7 99.5 6.1 610 1559
Libya 500.0 5.2 96.2 14.4 1440 3679
Morocco 543.0 29.2 18.6 477.4 4740 12111
Oman 56.0 2.2 25.5 6.0 600 1533

Qatar

65.9 0.5 131.8 0.7 70 179

S. Arabia

1517.0 18.5 82.0 48.2 4820 12315
Sudan 800.0 28.1 28.5 58.4 5840 14921
Syria 530.0 14.7 36.1 33.5 3350 8559
Tunisia 261.4 8.9 29.4 13.3 1330 3398

Turkey

5200.0 61.4 84.7 95.6 9560 24426

U.A.E.

500.0 1.9 263.2 3.0 300 767
Yemen 201.0 13.2 15.2 34.5 3450 8815
Total 21804.6       72730 185827

 

Wealth generated by the use of water in each sector of the economy
US dollars / cubic
meter

Country

Agriculture

Industry

Services

Afghanistan 0.40   268.62

Algeria

5.35 88.53 385.30

Bahrain

0.61 315.15  

Egypt

0.96 18.58 685.53
Iran 1.22 92.55 511.57
Iraq      

Israel

1.49 120.00 687.10

Jordan

1.68 - 1.91 138.00 - 207.00 360.10

Kuwait

  1887.69 237.37

Lebanon

0.69 69.92 154.88
Libya 0.48 209.00 516.30
Morocco 1.47 109.66 2036.30
Oman 0.45 389.47  

Qatar

0.53 653.57  

S. Arabia

0.81 492.18 411.07
Syria 2.18 53.04 1512.00
Sudan 0.52 22.60 707.07
Tunisia 2.90 183.74 1158.36

Turkey

2.54 92.55 511.57

U.A.E.

1.16 149.05 211.01
West Bank 9.89    
Yemen 1.77 400.00  
Average 1.86 532.77 649.37
Maximum 9.89 1887.69 2036.30
Minimum 0.40 18.58 154.88

 

Current and predicted water use as a percentage of renewable water resources

Country

Total water use
1990s

Total as percent of internal + external water resources
1990s

Extra domestic water needed for
2025

Predicted total water use for
2025

Predicted total as percent of internal + external water resources in
2025

 

 million m3

 %

 million m3

 million m3

 %
Afghanistan 26110.0 40 3879.0 29989.0 45.9

Algeria

4500.0 31 3600.0 8100.0 55.8

Bahrain

239.2 206 15.7 254.9 219.6

Egypt

55100.0 95 6690.0 61790.0 106.5
Iran 70034.0 51 6221.0 76255.0 55.5
Iraq 42800.0 57 3980.0 46780.0 62.3

Israel

2031.0 123 203.0 2234.0 135.3

Jordan

984.0 112 616.0 1600.0 182.0

Kuwait

538.0 2690 159.0 697.0 3485.4

Lebanon

1293.0 29 242.0 1535.0 34.4
Libya 4600.0 767 940.0 5540.0 923.0
Morocco 11045.0 37 4197.0 15242.0 51.1
Oman 1223.0 124 544.0 1767.0 179.0

Qatar

284.9 538 4.1 289.0 545.2

S. Arabia

17018.0 709 3303.0 20321.0 846.7
Sudan 17800.0 20 4680.0 22480.0 25.3
Syria 14410.0 55 2820.0 17230.0 65.8
Tunisia 3075.0 75 1069.0 4144.0 101.1

Turkey

31600.0 17 4360.0 35960.0 19.3

U.A.E.

2108.0 1405 -200.0 1908.0 1272.0
Yemen 2932.0 72 3249.0 6181.0 151.8

 

Extra water needed to meet estimated "minimum water needs" for the year 2025 and expressed as a percentage of current irrigation use

Country

Irrigation water usage in 1990s

Extra water needed to meet predicted domestic water demand (minimum) in 2025

Extra water needed as percent of current irrigation usage

 

 million m3

 million m3

 %
Afghanistan 25849.0 3879.0 15.0

Algeria

2700.0 3600.0 133.3

Bahrain

135.1 15.7 11.6

Egypt

47400.9 6690.0 14.1
Iran 64155.0 6221.0 9.7
Iraq 39380.0 9380.0 10.1

Israel

1297.0 203.0 15.7

Jordan

737.0 616.0 83.6

Kuwait

324.0 159.0 49.1

Lebanon

875.0 242.0 27.7
Libya 4000.0 940.0 23.5
Morocco 10180.0 4197.0 41.2
Oman 1148.0 544.0 47.4

Qatar

210.0 4.1 2.0

S. Arabia

15308.0 3303.0 21.6
Sudan 16800.0 4680.0 27.9
Syria 13600.0 2820.0 20.7
Tunisia 2727.5 1069.0 39.2

Turkey

22900.0 4360.0 19.0

U.A.E.

1408.0 -200.0  
Yemen 2700.0 3249.0 120.0

  

 

CHARACTERISTICS OF BOTTLED WATER BRANDS

Chemical constituents of some bottled waters marketed in Europe. Waters are listed according to the country of origin.

Country

Trade name

Ca2+

Mg2+

K+

Na+

HCO-3

SO2-4

NO-3

CI-

pH

Dry solids

Belgium Bru

23

22.06

1.8

10.0

209

-

1.0

4.0

-

-

Spa Reine

3

1.3

0.5

2.5

11

5

1.9

2.7

-

-

France Evian

78

24.0

1.0

5.0

357

10

3.8

4.5

7.2

309

Perrier

140

3.5

1.0

14.0

348

51

-

30.9

-

500

Vichy

100

9.0

60

1200

3000

130

-

220

-

-

Vittel

505

110

4.0

14.0

403

1479

0.7

11.0

7.0

2580

Volvic

10

6.0

5.4

8.0

64

7

4.0

7.5

7.0

110

Ireland Ballygowan

117

18.0

3.0

17.0

400

15

2.0

28.0

6.9

450

Carlow Castle

117

15.4

5.3

13.1

355

61

8.6

10.2

7.4

560

Glenpatrick

112

15.0

1.1

12.2

400

19

-

26.0

7.5

-

Kerry Spring

76

9.6

-

24.0

244

8

2.1

46.0

6.9

-

Slievenamon

112

15.0

1.1

12.2

400

19

-

20.0

7.5

-

Tipperary

37

23.0

17.0

25.0

282

10

2.3

19.0

7.7

272

Italy Aqua Fabia

129

4.0

0.9

11.2

384

-

-

19.5

-

-

Clavdia

96

30.0

88.0

66.0

561

49

4.5

58.0

-

-

Crodo lisiel

53

6.7

2.8

4.7

103

79

3.2

2.5

-

-

C.Valle D’ oro

519

49.0

5.0

1.8

69

1398

-

1.8

-

-

San Pellegrino

208

56.4

3.0

41.1

226

539

1.0

71.0

7.1

11204

S.Antonio

61

8.9

0.7

3.9

196

10

18.7

9.0

7.7

218

Sorgente Pana

31

6.1

0.9

6.5

104

19

1.8

8.9

7.4

136

Sweden Ramlosa

2

0.5

1.8

220

535

14

1.9

24.0

8.7

515

UK Ashbourne

102

24

3.0

10.0

-

60

6.0

30.0

-

420

Buxton Spring

56

20

1.0

24

123

-

0.01

38.0

7.4

-

Cerist

3

1.5

0.4

3.0

-

7

0.8

8.1

6.3

19

Highland Spring

45

20

-

12.5

181

10

0.2

16.0

-

-

Malvern Spring*

76

32

3.0

9.0

-

41

6.0

16.0

7.1

360

Pentre Nant Spring

35

12

1.9

50

-

28

-

34.0

8.2

-

Prysg

11

4.3

0.1

8.2

40

4

-

-

-

-

Snowdonia Spring

7

6.1

1.0

5.5

6

6

-

17.7

-

-

Strathglen Spring

24

5.0

0.3

7.5

95

10

1.8

11.0

7.3

119

Stretton Hills

41

7.2

1.6

10.8

106

33

12.6

20.0

-

-

*The Malvern Springs Pure Water Company Ltd bottled at Aston Manor Brewery in Birmingham.

 

GREEK BOTTLED WATER BRANDS

Chemical constituents of some bottled waters marketed in Greece.

Trade name

Ca2+

Mg2+

K+

Na+

NH4+

HCO3-

SO42-

NO3-

CI-

NO2-

  ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm
Zagori (Ζαγόρι) 62.4 10.7 1.5 3.4 0.0 177.0 19.0 -

7.1

0.0
Aura (Αύρα) 63.1 6.9 0.8 7.8 - 208.1 13.2 3.1 12.4 -
Doubia (Δουμπιά) 276.3 63.9 10.7 77.8 1.2 1299.3 48.1 7.4 17.1 0.03
Sourotis (Σουρωτή) 168.5 52.5 15.5 62.5 0.35 835.5 53.0 0.5 36.5 0.005
Ioli (Ιόλη) 54.1 31.5 0.8 8.2 0.1 267.5 15.0 6.2 13.5 0.0
Korpi (Κορπή) 101.2 2.1 0.8 4.7 0.0 305.5 4.3 4.3 10.2 0.0
Dorna 360.0 11.8 2.8 22.0 0.0 - - 0.0 10.2 0.0

   

Trade name

pH CO2 Solid deposit Total hardness El. Conductivity Total dissolved solids
    ppm     μS/cm  
Zagori* (Ζαγόρι) 7.52   235 ppm (260 oC) 200 ppm CaCO3 383 (20 oC) 207 ppm
Aura (Αύρα) 7.60   250 ppm (180 oC) 186 mg/L CaCO3 392.5 (25 oC)  
Doubia (Δουμπιά) 5.90   1.17 mg/L   1780 1806.56 mg/L
Sourotis* (Σουρωτή) 5.95 6100 0.94 gr/L   1350  
Ioli (Ιόλη) 7.30   289 mg/L (180 oC) 26.5 oF 490 396.9 mg/L
Korpi (Κορπή) 7.30   291 mg/L 261 mg/L CaCO3 509 (20 oC)  
Dorna 6.00 2920        

  

*Zagori

F - = 0.39 ppm
Pb, Hg, Cu, Al, Cr = 0.0 ppm

*Sourotis

F - = 0.3 ppm
SiO2- = 98.5 ppm
B = 1.5 ppm